how to apply for credit cards?

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Having a credit card is helpful for a number of reasons. Credit cards are safer to use than cash or debit cards, and they’re one of the easiest ways to build credit. They also frequently come with benefits like the chance to earn rewards for certain types of purchases, such as grocery store or travel purchases.

But searching for the right credit card for you—not to mention applying for a credit card—can be nerve-wracking. You might not know where to start, what information credit card companies (known as issuers) need from you or how to increase your chances of being approved for a card. That’s why it’s important to learn as much as you can about the application process and what you can expect from it before you apply for a credit card.

In this guide, we’ll take a look at some of the steps you should take when applying for a new credit card:

  1. Know your credit score and what it means
  2. Think about your needs
  3. Learn about credit card terms
  4. Check for preapproval
  5. Be prepared for your credit to be impacted when you apply
  6. Determine a repayment strategy

Read on to learn more about how to apply for a credit card and how to increase your chances of approval.

How to apply for a credit card

Before you apply for a credit card, you’ll want to do some prep work to increase your chances of approval. Here are the steps you should take:

1. Know your credit score and what it means

Credit scores help issuers to determine your creditworthiness, or how likely you are to pay back a loan.

How to check your credit score and report

You can request one free copy of your credit score and credit report every 12 months from each of the three major credit reporting bureaus: Equifax, Experian and TransUnion. You can request this report at AnnualCreditReport.com, the only federally-authorized source for free credit reports.

Alternatively, you can check to see if your bank or one of your credit card issuers (if you already have a credit card) offers free access to your FICO score or VantageScore through your account. You can see if your bank or issuer offers this perk by checking its website, calling customer service or just exploring your account.

Make sure you keep an eye on your credit report, as this is what your credit score is based on. Check your report for errors, and make sure to dispute any errors if you find them—an error could hurt your chances of being approved for a credit card.

Breakdown of credit score ranges

The two main credit scoring systems are FICO and VantageScore. Here is a breakdown of the score ranges for each:

FICO
  • Excellent: 800 to 850
  • Very good: 740 to 799
  • Good: 670 to 739
  • Fair: 580 to 669
  • Poor: 300 to 579
VantageScore
  • Excellent: 781 to 850
  • Good: 661 to 780
  • Fair: 601 to 660
  • Poor: 500 to 600
  • Very poor: 300 to 499

It’s important to note that most credit cards have a credit score requirement that applicants must meet in order to be approved. For example, if you have a poor credit score, then you don’t want to apply for a card that requires a good to excellent score.

What to do if you don’t have a credit score

If you’re just starting out with credit and don’t have a score yet, you’ll want to look for a credit card that requires no credit history, such as a secured credit card. These cards will help you to build up your credit score so that you can apply for better cards in the future. For example, once you work your way up to a credit score in the good to excellent credit range (670 to 850) you’ll have more credit card options to choose from, like rewards cards, where you’ll get the opportunity to earn cash back, points or miles on purchases. For example, you could potentially earn hundreds of dollars back annually or major discounts on hotels and flights.

2. Think about your needs

Once you know what cards you might qualify for based on your credit score, it’s time to think about what your needs are for a credit card. Are you looking to earn cash back or travel rewards? Or, maybe building credit first is your highest priority. There are lots of cards that will cater to each of these needs and more.

What to consider when choosing a credit card

Each card also comes with its own terms and conditions, including fees, offers, benefits and interest rates. Here are some aspects you should consider:

  • Do you mind paying an annual fee? Check to see if the card you’re interested in has an annual fee and think about whether the annual fee would be worth it to you. For example, many rewards cards have an annual fee attached to them, typically varying from $95 to $550 per year. Will you be able to earn enough rewards on your card to offset the fee?
  • Will you be carrying a balance? Consider whether you’ll be carrying a balance on your card or if you’ll be paying off your purchases in full. If you plan to carry a balance, the interest rate on your card will have a big impact on your monthly payments. You’ll want to look for cards with a low interest rate or cards that offer a 0 percent intro APR for a limited period, such as 12 to 21 months.
  • Do you want to earn rewards? If you have good to excellent credit, a rewards card that allows you to earn cash back, points or miles on qualifying purchases could be a great option to consider. You could earn rewards on everyday purchases at grocery stores, gas stations, restaurants and more, plus a flat rewards rate on all other purchases. Many of these cards also offer sign-up bonuses for new cardholders, along with other benefits like travel perks, shopping credits and purchase protection, among others.

3. Learn about credit card terms

There are a lot of different credit card terms you’re going to see on a credit card application, and it’s a good idea to have an understanding of those terms before you apply. Here are some of the terms you’ll see and what they mean:

Annual fee

Some card issuers charge a yearly fee for the use of a credit card. Some credit cards that usually have an annual fee are those with luxury perks, like rewards and travel cards. Annual fees typically start at $95, but sometimes issuers will waive the annual fee for the first year for new cardholders.

APR

The annual percentage rate, or APR, refers to the interest that will be applied to your credit account during a billing cycle. You’ll generally pay this interest if you carry a balance or pay a bill late. APRs are usually variable; they cover a certain range (for example, 15.99 percent to 22.99 percent) and are determined by the prime rate.

Types of APRs that you may see are:

  • Balance transfer intro APR. Some cards offer new cardholders an intro APR of 0 percent for a select period of time (for example, 12 months) for balance transfers.
  • Purchase intro APR. This interest is applied to all purchases. Similar to an intro APR for balance transfers, some credit cards offer a 0 percent intro APR for purchases for a select period of time, such as 12 months.
  • Penalty APR. Missed or returned payments are subject to a higher interest rate.

Balance transfer

A balance transfer is when you move debt from one account to another account. If you want to pay off debt, you may want to transfer your debt to a card with a lower interest rate, or better yet, a balance transfer credit card with a 0 percent intro APR offer.

Cash advance

A cash advance is a loan you can take out against your credit card limit. Although it’s similar to taking cash out from an ATM with your debit card, a cash advance from your credit card is subject to both a high APR and transaction fees.

Penalty fees

You may be subject to penalty fees if you pay a bill late, your payment is returned or if you exceed the maximum limit on your credit card.

Rewards rate

Rewards rates come in the form of cash back, points or miles. A credit card will state which type of rewards it offers and how you can earn rewards on purchases.

Foreign transaction fees

If you want to use your credit card outside of the U.S., you may need to pay a fee for each transaction. Foreign transaction fees are usually around 3 percent. However, if you travel abroad a lot, you may want to look for a credit card that doesn’t charge foreign transaction fees.

Welcome bonus

New cardholders are often offered a welcome bonus when they sign up for a new card. Typically, welcome offers allow you to earn a cash back, points or miles when you spend a certain amount on your new card over a specified period of time. A welcome bonus may also be referred to as a welcome offer, intro bonus or sign-up bonus.

4. Check for preapproval

Before you apply for a card, check to see if you can be preapproved. Keep in mind, however, that being preapproved does not guarantee you will get the card you are applying for.

Bankrate’s CardMatch tool is a free resource that will match you with personalized offers through a prequalification process. This is a great tool to utilize before applying for a new credit card because it involves a soft credit inquiry, not a hard credit inquiry. A soft credit inquiry won’t affect your credit, whereas a hard credit inquiry can lower your credit score and will be reported to the three credit bureaus.

Additionally, it’s important to note that whenever you check your own credit score or report, this is considered a soft credit inquiry, which means it will not hurt your credit score in any way.

5. Be prepared for your credit to be impacted when you apply

Most of the time, applying for a credit card will trigger a hard inquiry into your credit report, which means that the card issuer will pull your credit report to check your creditworthiness. A hard inquiry will cause your credit score to go down a bit, but the effect is only short-term. The maximum amount of time a hard inquiry will stay on your report is two years.

If you apply for a credit card and your application is rejected, it’s important to be mindful of when you apply for your next credit card. One hard inquiry on your report is a pretty neutral occurrence in the long run. However, applying for multiple credit cards over a short period of time—with their accompanying hard inquiries—would be a red flag for card issuers.

6. Determine a repayment strategy

Having a credit card comes with the responsibility of making payments. Making late payments or minimum payments opens you up to interest charges and fees, in addition to potentially hurting your credit score. For that reason, the best way to pay your credit card bill is on time and in full every month.

Estimate your monthly payments

Before you apply, make sure you have included your estimated monthly credit card payments in your budget. However, keep in mind that you’ll want to keep your credit utilization ratio below 30 percent (or lower than that, if you can). Your credit utilization ratio is the amount of credit you’re currently using divided by the amount of credit you have available.

For example, if you’re approved for a credit card and offered a credit limit of $10,000, you’ll want to make sure that your monthly statement never exceeds $3,000. If your credit utilization ratio is more than 30 percent, your credit score will likely drop because the ratio of revolving credit used to revolving credit available is too high. If you have a large purchase coming up and want to use your credit card but avoid a hit to your credit score, simply pay off the purchase early (such as a few days after it’s reflected on your online account).

Look for an autopay option

Check to see if the credit card you are applying for allows for autopay (most do) to help streamline the payment process and make sure you pay your bills on time.

Late payments

Even one late payment can make your score drop by more than 100 points—but how much a late payment will affect your score depends on factors like your credit history and how late the payment is.

Most issuers won’t report a payment as late until a bill is at least 30 days past due. So, if you forget to pay a bill and end up paying it a few days or even a few weeks late, as long as you pay the bill in full, the issuer will likely not report the payment as late. But if you only pay a portion of the bill, the issuer will likely report the payment as late, which will cause your credit score to drop.

Information you need to apply for a credit card

Before you apply, make sure you know all of the information you’ll need for your application. This will help the process to go more smoothly, and you’ll have a better idea of your chances of approval.

Here is some of the information you should know beforehand:

  • Full legal name
  • Date of birth
  • Address
  • Social Security number
  • Annual income

Additional information you may need to know

The above information will serve as the basis for your application, but be prepared to provide additional details. For example, the card issuer may want to know how long you have been at your current address and if you own or rent your home. They may also ask about your current employer, main source of income and any assets you may have. You can also include your spouse’s or partner’s income in the application process, as long as you have “reasonable access” to it.

Applying for a business credit card

If you’re applying for a business credit card and your business is considered big enough, you can use an employer identification number (EIN). Keep in mind that business credit cards may still ask for your Social Security number during the application process.

Where to apply for a credit card

Before you apply, take a look at different credit cards online to see which options might be the best for you. Then, choose the card you’re the most interested in and qualified for. When it’s time to apply, there are a few different ways you can do so.

The issuer’s website

The easiest way to apply for a card is to submit an application through an issuer’s website. How long it takes to be approved for a credit card varies, but you will likely receive the quickest response if you submit your credit card application online. You may even be approved instantly.

In person

Another option is to apply in person. You’ll receive a quick response on application approval, and you can ask questions about the card or application in real time. However, it may be tricky to find physical locations for some card providers, and you’ll only be able to apply during business hours.

Over the phone

Although you will have to apply during business hours, applying over the phone will offer a fairly quick response about your application, too. But with phone applications, you may have to deal with long wait times and being put on hold.

Through the mail

Applying through the mail is by far the least efficient of all of the options. You will have to wait for your application to arrive at the issuer and also wait for it to mail back a response, which could take weeks.

What to do if your application is denied

If you find that, despite your efforts, your credit card application is denied, it’s not the end of the world. It’s possible your application didn’t go through for a number of reasons. Maybe your credit score or income is too low, or maybe you don’t have the best credit history.

If you want to know why your application was rejected, lenders are required (by the Fair Credit Reporting Act) to tell you why you have been denied credit, either electronically, orally or in writing. This is called an adverse action notice, and it typically arrives in the mail seven to 10 business days after your denied application.

Being denied multiple times for a line of credit won’t hurt your credit score. What hurts your credit score are the multiple hard inquiries during the application process—this will knock your score down a few points or more.

Before you apply for another new card, make sure you meet the minimum application requirements and know why you’ve been rejected before. This way, you likely won’t get hit with another hard inquiry and a denied application. However, if you keep getting denied, go back to your initial research and look at what other options are on the table. For example, you could apply for a secured credit card to help build up your credit score to improve your chances of being approved for your next credit card application.

The bottom line

Although you may be initially excited about applying for a new credit card, your excitement may quickly fade as you fill out the application and question whether or not you’ll be approved. But you can alleviate some of the stress of applying for a credit card simply by reviewing your credit score and report beforehand and by knowing whether or not you meet the requirements for your desired card. If you meet your desired credit card’s requirements, you’ll have a good chance of approval. If you don’t meet its requirements, look into credit cards that you do meet the requirements for and apply for the one that is the best mutual fit.

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